History of Modern Hungarian Sculpture
Timeline, examens and credits
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Language of instruction: Hungarian
Exam requirements: colloquium (introduction of drawn topic)
Teaching methods: projection-aided presentation
Recommended study methods: familiarisation with literature in the field and viewing of the works in person, whenever possible
Course description, major areas of study (per semester):
The introduction shortly addresses the history of the Hungarian University of Fine Arts as an institution and the establishment of the Hungarian National Royal Model Drawing Apprenticeship School, which contained the sculpture school with its first professors and tutors. Emphasis is placed on the tutor schools and the first principle Alajos Stróbl, who created the Mulberry Garden (Epreskert), turning it into a scenic spot of Budapest. Instead of following in chronological order, the lectures discuss the development of Hungarian sculpture in accordance with its main problems of form in six large units, taking also into consideration European antecedents and relationships.
Sculpture at the turn of the century: the two paths. A. Rodin and A. Hildebrand. The spreading of the torso as new art form. Rodin?s apprentices and followers - the influence on Hungarian sculpture is scattered but characteristic (Miklós Ligeti, Gyula Betlen, Dezső Lányi, Imre Csikász).
The significance of Adolf von Hildebrand?s book, The Problem of Form in the fine arts and his influence on the perception of form in sculpture are discussed, as well as the technique of direct carving and its Hungarian followers: Fülöp Beck Ö., Vilmos Fémes Beck, Márk Vedres.
The reinterpretation of mass and space in sculpture and the works of Alexander Archipenko, the prominent master of avantgarde sculpture, are covered. There are discussions on Hungarian sculptors in Paris under the influence of avantgarde: Béni Ferenczy, József Csáky, István Beöthy, and in the art deco studios of Paris: József Csáky, Gusztáv Miklós, Sándor Keleti, Imre Huszár, Géza Hiesz. The workmanship of sculptors at the beginning of their careers in post World War I Hungary is explored in a historical context: a lost war, lost illusions, neo-conservatism. Oswald Spengler?s The Decline of the West is covered. Its Hungarian counterpart: architect, Pál Ligeti, and his book on art philosophy entitled Towards a New Pantheon (Új Pantheon felé) - its influence on Hungarian sculpture in the era. The life and work of sculptors such as László Mészáros György, Goldman, Erzsébet Forgács Hann Tibor, Vilt are explored. Contemporary sculptors such as János Mattis Teutsch, Elza Kalmár, the early works of Pál Pátzay, Miklós Gárdos, Károly Langsfeld, Gyula Gerő.
The great masters of figurative sculpture. The classical idea of aesthetic: Ferenc Medgyessy, Béni Ferenczy, Miklós Borsos. The tragic and grotesque human image: Dezső Bokros Birman. The image of ?man cast into being? (?létbe vetett ember?): Erzsébet Schaár.
Nonfigurative and surreal endeavours in Hungarian sculpture, the Kassák Circle, European School. László Péri, Ferenc Martyn, Lajos Barta, Ibolya Lossonczy, József Jakovits, Barna Megyei.
While the lecture series by way of exploring a number of life-works gets around to the 1970s-80s (ex.: Vilt, Schaár), it does not cover the 1960s? new generation of artists of which the present professors of the University are representatives of, as that would not be ethically justifiable.